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恩施玉露传承人:蔡老伯 ( Enshi Yulu ICH Bearer )

喝茶去 Go Have Some Tea. Let it be

茶知识 Facts on Tea


绿茶简单鉴赏 Thumb of Rule to Appreciate green teas

除水和酒以外, 没有其他饮料向茶一样影响人类的生活.  欣赏水蒸绿茶主要是茶水中品味, 欣赏火炒绿茶 - 龙井类, 主要是清香味道. 和欣赏红酒类似, 通常人难以辨别茶的细微差别. 通常我们愿意欣赏茶叶的形体.

No other drink has touched the lives of so many people in so many different ways except for water and alcohol.

Green Tea with Panning/Baking Fixation:  Strong aroma/smell even just pouring hot water, taste lasts 2 brews, yellowishbrew,  roasted chestnut flavor. Typical  Dragonwell Green Tea

Green Tea with steamed Fixation:  Weak aroma/smell, taste lasts 3 brews, more fresh grass flavor, even seaweed flavor, green brew. Typical Yulu/ Gyokuro green Tea

Also, you do need to appreciate green tea shape, before brewing and/or during and after brewing in the tea cup.

Steamed YuLuEnshi YuLu Green Tea

Enshi Dragonwell / LongJingEnshi Dragonfly / Longjing

Enshi Buds green teaEnshi Buds Green Tea - blooming in the cup



红茶: 发酵/氧化? Black Tea: Oxidation/Fermentation?


中国历史传承下来, 把红茶制作过程中 茶叶变色升温的过程笼统称为发酵过程. 但按现代科学的定义, 发酵是必须有酵母真菌作用. 茶叶升温变色的过程是氧化的化学反应过程. 但中国上千年的历史习惯,要修改这个说法太难.   唯一发酵的茶饮料是红茶菌茶饮料 In china for a long time ,turning green leaf into black tea with heat  is called fermanting process. With modern science definitation of fermenting , the fermenting process mus have microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria added into it. But the old habit dies hard.  The only fermented tea drink is Kombucha.


茶树的分类 Tea Plant/Tree Categories

中国有500种左右的茶树. 通常按茶叶的大小- 超大, 大, 中, 小 和茶树的形状高矮来分类 - 乔木, 小乔木, 灌木.  如按树型分类,灌木型品种占74%,小乔木型品种占10%。乔木型品种占16%;如按叶片大小分类,特大大叶类品种占13%,大叶类品种占25%,中叶类品种占44%,小叶类品种占18%。


China has about 500 types of tea plants.   To categorize the tea plant,   two common ways in China is used:  1.  Size of the tea leaf;    2. Shape/size of tea plant  

                 By size of the leaf:  Tea Plants

Big:   L: >10 cm(3.5"); W: > 4 cm(1.5")        38%

Medium:  :7-10cm;  W:  3-4                      44%

Small:    L: < 7              W: < 3                        18%  

             By tree height/shape :  

10-30 Meters ( 50 ft ) 乔木                          16%;

Two M (5-20 ft )小乔木                                10%;

One M (<5 ft)  灌木(Tea shrub)                  74%


Uncle Cai's teas  use tea shrubs


茶叶制作的典型步骤 Tea Making Steps

绿茶,黄茶,白茶,红茶,黑茶


中国把茶叶基本茶类分为6大类,延伸出去的,如花茶 为加工茶类。


基本茶类

工艺流程

主要特点及典型茶

绿茶

杀青→揉捻→干燥

  清汤绿叶 含EGCG。玉露,龙井, 毛尖

红茶

萎凋→揉捻→80%氧化发酵→干燥

红汤红叶: 正山小种

乌龙茶

萎凋→做青 50%氧化发酵 →炒青→揉捻→干燥

绿叶红镶边: 大红袍

黄茶

杀青→揉捻→闷黄10%氧化发酵→干燥

黄汤黄叶: 君山银针

白茶

萎凋→20%氧化发酵→干燥

汤色晶亮,滋味鲜爽带甜

黑茶

杀青→揉捻→渥堆100%氧化发酵→干燥

橙黄汤色,醇和滋味:普洱(熟),边茶

杀青:停止氧化,保持绿色. 可以是水蒸(蒸青),炒,烤,日晒.

Here is a best diagram showing those 6 categories of tea: Wiki: Tea Processing

Uncle Cai tea making - enshi yuluEnshi Yulu  Steamed processing/making procedure



茶的传播 Names of tea


茶从中国传到全世界. 从海上"丝绸之路"传出去的, 叫 TEA. 从陆地"丝绸之路"传出去的叫 ChA /Chai.  [2]

called Tea if by ocean Silk Road, called Cha /Chai if by land Silk road.   refer to "Tea if by sea, cha/Chai if by land: Why the world only has two words for tea"

Tea' globalization path


参考文献


1. 茶经陆羽 760

2. 茶的真实历史[美] 梅维恒 著  三联书店  2018  

3. 《恩施玉露》杨胜伟 中国农业出版社出版  2015


References


1. An Illustrated Modern Reader of 'The Classic of Tea'

2.The True History of Tea, Book by Erling Hoh and Victor H. Mair, 2012,Published by Thames and Hudson